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Chemical Process (Liquid-phase growth) - Ground surface

Required Geological Setting

Island arc volcanoes


Manganese dioxide deposits precipitated from the hot spring water. It is considered that Mn ions in the hot springs was deposited as buserite by the activity of manganese-oxidizing bacteria in the hot spring water. These deposits have been studied as modern analogies of huge manganese oxide deposits formed during the Precambrian period (575 Ma) or older.

Reported Minerals

  • Buserite
  • Birnessite
  • Todorokite


  • Yu-no-Taki Fall, Lake Onneto (Modern)

Related Occurrences

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