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Water Bottom Deposition

Chemical Process (Liquid-phase Growth) - Under water

Required Geological Setting

Neogene and Quaternary sediments


Minerals formed on the seafloor. Among these minerals, ikaite, which observed as calcite pseudomorph "glendonite", deposits from carbonate-rich groundwater on the surface of seafloors. The formation temperature is less than 0 degree, and it can be an index mineral of cold circumstance.

Water Bottom Deposition

Distribution of minerals formed by water bottom deposition in this site.


  • Tateya (Glendonite)
  • Kodo (Glendonite)
  • Iseyama (Glendonite)
  • Teradomari (Glendonite)
  • (Methane hydrate)

Related Occurrences

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